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List of References

Web Foundation · September 21, 2022

Review of Progress by Tech Companies

AccessNow (2021) What you need to know about the Facebook Papers, available at 

Centre for Countering Digital Hate (2022) Hidden Hate: How Instagram fails to act on 9 in 10 reports of misogyny in DMs 

Katsaros, M., Yang, K., & Fratamico, L. (2022). Reconsidering Tweets: Intervening during Tweet Creation Decreases Offensive Content

Ofcom (2022) Ofcom urges tech firms to keep women safer online, available at 

PBS (2021) Facebook’s language gaps allow terrorist content and hate speech to thrive, available at 

Refuge (2021) Unsocial Spaces: make online spaces safer for women and girls

Ultra Violet (2021) Putting the onus on women is a PR stunt – the platforms are the problem, available at 

Wall Street Journal (2021) The Facebook Files, available at 

Greater Accountability for OGBV

Association for Progressive Communications (2018) Providing a gender lens in the digital age: APC Submission to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights’ Working Group on Business and Human Rights

Centre for International Governance Innovation (2021) Transparency Is Key to Curbing the Power of Big Tech, available at 

End Violence Against Women, Glitch (2021) The Ripple Effect: Covid-19 and the epidemic of online abuse

European Parliamentary Research Service (2021) Combating gender-based violence: Cyber violence

eSafety (2020) Children and technology-facilitated abuse in domestic and family violence situations

eSafety (2022) Women in the Spotlight: Women’s experiences with online abuse in their working lives 

Fairplay (2022) Global platforms, partial protections: Design discriminations on social media platforms

Herbert Smith Freehills (2021) Online Harms: What is the global state of play?, available at 

KICTANet (2020) Online gender-based violence in times of COVID-19

Social Development Direct (2020) Addressing Gender-Based Violence and Harassment: Emerging Good Practice for the Private Sector  

Suzor N. (2018) Human Rights by Design: The Responsibilities of Social Media Platforms to Address Gender-Based Violence Online

Tony Blair Institute for Global Change (2022) A Ten-Point Strategy Towards Ending Technology-Facilitated Gender-Based Violence in Africa

UN Women (2020) Online and ICT facilitated violence against women and girls during COVID-19

Wired (2021) Facebook Is Everywhere; Its Moderation Is Nowhere Close, available at 

Case studies

Chayn (2022) Orbits: A global field guide to advance intersectional, survivor-centred, and trauma-informed interventions to technology-facilitated gender-based violence

National Democratic Institute (2019) Tweets That Chill: Analyzing Online Violence Against Women in Politics

Plan International (2022) The Truth Gap: How misinformation and disinformation online affect the lives, learning and leadership of girls and young women

Ultra Violet (2021) Social Media Report Card, available at 

OGBV in the Global South

Africa (Central, Eastern, Western, Southern)

Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria (2022) Understanding Online Gender-based Violence in Southern Africa

Collaboration on International ICT Policy for East and Southern Africa (2020) In Search of Safe Spaces Online: A Research Summary

Kakande, A., Achieng, G., Iyer, N., Nyamwire, B., Nabulega, S., and Mwendwa, I. (2021) Amplified Abuse – Report on Online Violence Against Women in the 2021 Uganda General Elections

Nanfuka, J (2019) Silent No More! Africa’s Feminist Voices Are Growing Louder, available at 

Neema Iyer, Bonnita Nyamwire and Sandra Nabulega (2020) Alternate Realities, Alternate Internets – African Feminist Research for a Feminist Internet

Plan International (2020) Abuse and harassment driving girls off Facebook, Instagram and Twitter, available at

Asia Pacific (Central, South, Northeastern, Southeastern Asia, Oceania)

Amnesty International (2020) Troll Patrol India: Exposing Online Abuse Faced by Women Politicians in India 

Bytes for All (2014) Technology Driven Violence Against Women – Country Report Pakistan

CARE Bangladesh (2016) Report of Expert Consultation Responding to Violence against Women and Girls in the Cyber Age

Debarati Halder (2017) Revenge Porn Against Women and the Applicability of Therapeutic Jurisprudence: A Comparative Analysis of Regulations in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh

Feminism in India (2021) “Violence” Online In India: Cybercrimes Against Women & Minorities on Social Media

Hamara Internet (2017) Measuring Pakistani Women’s Experiences of Online Violence: A quantitative research study on online gender-based harassment in Pakistan

IT for Change (2019) Born digital, Born free? A socio-legal study on young women’s experiences of online violence in South India

IT for Change (2019) Getting it right online: Young women’s negotiations in the face of cyberviolence in Karnataka

IT for Change (2019) Walking on Eggshells: A study on gender justice and women’s struggles in Malayali cyberspace

Musharraf S. et al. (2019) General and ICT Self-Efficacy in Different Participants Roles in Cyberbullying/ Victimization Among Pakistani University Students

Nova et al. (2019) Online sexual harassment over anonymous social media in Bangladesh

Randhawa S. (2010) Cambodia, Malaysia, Pakistan and the Philippines: Cross-country Study on Violence against Women and Information Communication Technologies

USAID (2022) Landscape Analysis of Technology-Facilitated Gender Based Violence – Findings from the Asia Region

Latin America/ Caribbean

AccessNow (2021) Los retos que deja el teletrabajo respecto a la violencia de genero

Aurora Proyecto (2020) Chile y la violencia de genero en Internet: experiencias de mujeres cis, trans y no binaries.

Derechos Digitales (2022) Covid-19 and the increase of domestic violence against women in Latin America: A digital rights perspective

Fundacion Multitudes (2022) Encuesta sobre la Desinformation en la Convencion Constitucional

Fundacion Multitudes (2022) Survey on Disinformation to Women Parliamentarians of Chile

OAS (2021) Violencia de género en línea contra niñas y mujeres: Guía de conceptos básicos, herramientas de seguridad digital y estrategias de respuesta

Ochoa P. P. (2017) Reporte De La Situación De América Latina Sobre La Violencia De Género Ejercida Por Medios Electrónicos

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